Wed. Apr 17th, 2024

Premature ovarian failure is another name of primary ovarian insufficiency that causes infertility. When the ovaries quit working correctly before the age of 40, it is called Primary Ovarian Insufficiency. Once it occurs, your ovaries stop producing enough estrogen or release eggs frequently. So, you must know what causes Primary Ovarian Insufficiency and its treatment through the post below.

Understanding Primary Ovarian Insufficiency

Premature Ovarian failure occurs when the woman’s ovaries don’t usually work before 40. A sudden fall in fertility is often noticed at this age. As they approach menopause, women may also experience irregular mensuration. However, women with Primary Ovarian Insufficiency usually have reduced fertility and irregular menstrual periods before 40. At times, it may begin in the adolescent years.

Besides, premature menopause is not the same as Primary Ovarian Insufficiency, and if you have premature menopause, your menstrual periods will end before you reach 40. A few women with Primary Ovarian Insufficiency may still have menstrual periods occasionally, and in most cases, they may conceive. Radiation or chemotherapy, surgery, or disease may all be the natural causes.

Diagnosing Primary Ovarian Insufficiency

Blood Tests

You need to undergo specific blood tests to determine the levels of various hormones. Chromosomal analysis may be performed using a blood test. The component of a cell containing genetic details is called a chromosome.

Medical History

Medical history is taken to know if you or your relatives suffer from Primary Ovarian Insufficiency.

Pelvic Ultrasound

An ultrasound of the pelvis is used to determine if the ovaries are big or have numerous follicles.

Physical Examination

It is done to search for indicators of other illnesses that may be affecting your symptoms.

Pregnancy Test

A pregnancy test is done to ensure pregnancy.

What Causes POI Or Primary Ovarian Insufficiency?

The causes of Primary Ovarian Insufficiency are unknown, but research studies indicate that POI has been linked to follicular issues. Your ovaries have tiny sacs called follicles, and inside them, your eggs mature and grow.

One follicular issue is when you are deficient in active follicles sooner than expected. Another possibility is that the follicles are not functioning correctly. The follicular problem source is usually unknown. However, there may be the following factors that may be associated with Primary Ovarian Insufficiency.

  • Autoimmune conditions, such as Addison disease and thyroiditis.
  • Radiation therapy or chemotherapy.
  • Genetic disorders, including Turner syndrome and Fragile X syndrome.
  • Low follicles count.
  • Metabolic Disorder.
  • Toxins, including pesticides, chemicals, and cigarette smoke.

Factors Associated with Risk of Primary Ovarian Insufficiency

  • Certain factors are associated with the risk of Primary Ovarian Insufficiency in women, which are as follows:
  • Age- Primary Ovarian Insufficiency can affect young women; however, it is more prevalent in 35 to 40 ages.
  • Disease- Viral infections, autoimmune diseases, or cancer treatments, such as radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
  • Genes- Women are more susceptible to POI due to changes in their DNA and genetic circumstances. Women with Turner syndrome or Fragile X syndrome are at high risk.
  • History of Family- Primary Ovarian Insufficiency is more common among women whose siblings or mothers have it. 

Occurrence Of Health Issues Due to Primary Ovarian Insufficiency

Since Primary Ovarian Insufficiency lowers the levels of some hormones, you’re more likely to develop other health problems, including the following:

Depression and Anxiety

POI-induced hormonal changes may exacerbate anxiety or result in depression.

Eye Diseases

Eye surface and dry eye syndrome are two conditions that affect the eyes. One of these eye problems affects a few women with Primary Ovarian Insufficiency. Both may result in blurred vision and cause discomfort. These disorders may also result in permanent eye damage when not treated.

Heart Diseases

Lower estrogen levels may damage the muscles that line the arteries, causing cholesterol to build up in the streets. These variables raise your chances of developing atherosclerosis that hardens arteries.


Primary Ovarian Insufficiency may also result in infertility. Hence, women experiencing Primary Ovarian Insufficiency may opt for In-Vitro Fertilization.


Estrogen is a hormone that helps keep bones healthy. It is a bone disorder that causes brittle and weak bones, making them more prone to break. Women with POI frequently develop osteoporosis due to a lack of estrogen.

Reduced Thyroid Function

Hypothyroidism is another name for this condition. The thyroid is a gland that helps produce hormones, which regulate metabolism and energy levels in the body. Thyroid hormone deficiency may also impact your metabolism, resulting in mental sluggishness, poor energy, and specific other symptoms.

Treating Primary Ovarian Insufficiency

No proven treatment is currently available for restoring a woman’s ovaries to normal function. A few of the symptoms of POI, however, can be treated. Also, some other things are there that you may do to reduce your health risks and treat the diseases that POI can cause:

Hormone Replacement Therapy

HRT or Hormone Replacement Therapy is among the most prevalent treatment. It provides estrogen and other hormones that the ovaries cannot produce. Besides, it enhances sexual health while lowering osteoporosis and heart disease risks. Women can take it till 50 when menopause often occurs.

Vitamin D and Calcium Supplements

Women with Primary Ovarian Insufficiency are usually at high risk for osteoporosis; you must intake vitamin D and calcium daily.

In-Vitro Fertilization

If pregnancy is required when you have Primary Ovarian Insufficiency, you can consider trying In-Vitro Fertilization or IVF.

Healthy Weight and Regular Physical Activities

Weight control and regular physical weight may help reduce the risk of heart disease and osteoporosis.

Treatments For Illnesses

If you have certain health conditions linked to Primary Ovarian Insufficiency, you must treat them. Treatment can include hormones and medicines too.


Primary Ovarian Insufficiency is a condition that usually occurs in women in their 40s once the ovaries don’t work the way they should. Hence, knowing its symptoms, causes, and effects is essential to treat this condition. You may also book an appointment at Aastha Fertility Care Jaipur if you experience any symptom associated with Primary Ovarian Insufficiency to treat it before the condition is severe.

By Manali